The State of Kang Gyala is a despotic theocratic state that has complete control over the sparsely-populated Pujian IV. Kang Gyala has gained an infamous reputation throughout the galaxy as one of the most depraved human societies in existence. The only state officially abiding by Pidanayana, the most popular form of Buddhism, Kang Gyala rates as one of the worst places to live in the galaxy, even between superpowers who normally pack such ratings with their rivals of the moment.
Pujian IV, like its counterpart in the Sol system, was cold, arid and had a thin atmosphere, even after the best terraforming efforts of the Chinese. Fittingly, the Chinese government decided to use Tibetans, especially members of the anti-communist resistance, to build the infrastructure necessary for proper settlement. The Chinese even convinced the Americans to give up the Dalai Lama, which coincided with the official Christianization of the Empire, to exile him on Pujian IV. This action effectively silenced him while at the same time denying him martyrdom. The Tibetans gave the world the name Kang Gyala. The settlements were half-finished by the time of the Collapse and once news reached Pujian IV the world's Chinese overlords were slaughtered by the Tibetans and the Dalai Lama proclaimed the state of Kang Gyala.
The Tibetans initially believed that now they were free, their lives would improve. This would not be the case. While the chaos of the Collapse was short-lived on Pujian IV, the world suffered from its lack of habitability. The Chinese populated the world with more servants than it could naturally sustain and with the disappearance of the Chinese state there could be no resupply. Millions died from disease, famine and violence. It was during this time that the Pidanayana sect developed, mostly among rural Buddhist monks tasked with aiding the unfortunate but could not cope with the suffering before them. The monks began to execute the hopeless, at first reluctantly, but soon the mercy killings were anything but. To reconcile their actions and what they saw, they came to believe that suffering was a gift to reject the material existence that led to the Collapse. Those they inflict suffering on are placed on the proper path to Nirvana.
This sect was at first unpopular, but it gained traction as the suffering continued for centuries. The universe seemed fully intent on inflicting as much suffering as possible upon all life; how could it not be a gift? With more suffering, the more Pidanayana made sense, and this crept up through Kang Gyala's priesthood. The lamas at first resisted, both out of fear for their own power and their utter disgust at the actions of the Pidanayana monks, but the conflict was radicalized when many lamas attempted to ban the religion and used violent force to resist. Moderates and pacifists criticized the issue, including the Dalai Lama, which led to the growing influence of Pidanayana. By the 25th century, Pidanayana was the dominant form of Buddhism in Kang Gyala (and, while they were unaware of it at the time, the entire galaxy).
The new Pidanayanan lamas created a system that intended to inflict suffering on as many people as possible. While this was naturally met with resistance, the "gifts of enlightenment" granted to the captured rebels caused the resistance movements to wither. Kang Gyala put all of its efforts not into improving the living conditions of its people, for that would be contrary to Pidanayana, but on spreading its philosophy throughout the stars. Encountering the suffering of the rest of the East Asian-occupied world of Pujian III and later galaxy, the lamas were further convinced of their religion's veracity. The idea of accepting suffering became popular throughout East Asia, Eurasia and what would become the United Technocracies of Man. Some states attempted to crack down, forcing Pidanayana underground, but in states such as East Asia, Eurasia and Cathay Pidanayana was embraced as a tool of oppression and has become the most popular religion among state security forces. The superpowers were not so friendly to this ideology, fearing its spread would subvert their own pet doctrines, and brutally crushed any Pidanayana followers they could find (even if the followers happily accepted). Consequently, Kang Gyala is condemned as a poor, sadistic, dystopian state among the superpower camps, and fortunately for the propagandists of the three superpowers they do not need to fabricate much. The attacks didn't stop even after the priesthood ordered its priests to aid the superpowers in their mission of spreading suffering, although this was successful in preventing the superpowers from actually trying to destroy Kang Gyala.
Kang Gyala's political system has remained largely unchanged since its inception: it was, and still is, a theocratic elected monarchy. New Dalai Lamas are elected from the priesthood and have absolute power; however, the system has become de facto hereditary as the illegitimate child of the previous Dalai Lama is typically elected. The lamas are a heavily entrenched aristocratic class, and they deny the gift of suffering by living immensely hedonistic lives. Large temples, effectively large mansions for the lamas' libertine lifestyles, lord over large peasant grounds which they rule with an iron fist. Peasants are only too grateful to give away their children to serve and suffer under a lama, believing that these selfish, materialistic children will be enlightened. Given that over half of a lama's servants hasten their own reincarnation, the living conditions of these servants must be "enlightening." The lamas make sure that their peasants are always suffering, letting them keep only the bare minimum needed for them to survive and suffer for decades. Starvation and disease from centuries past still plague the peasants, only now they are taught to embrace it. But the high-ranking lamas can only do so much individually; they must rely on their subordinates to ensure that everyone is enlightened. These monks and nuns are part police , part state security agents and part religious teachers. They are taught the most painful torture methods known to mankind, sometimes emulating other states and history but oftentimes creating their own. These monks and nuns normally seek out dissidents among communities and torture them in front of the entire community, sometimes forcing their friends and family to participate in the torture. If they cannot find any dissidents, they will seize a random person and torture them. In order to ensure that they themselves are sufficiently enlightened, the monks and nuns are tortured for years before they can join the ranks.
Astropolitically, Kang Gyala remains extremely unpopular, but not to the point that anyone wants to actually dispose of it. For most states, it is a convenient propaganda tool, while others (such as neighboring East Asia), it is respected and feared because of the large Pidanayana communities within their borders. For all its faults, Kang Gyala is politically isolationist and does not seek to spread its ideology through violence, knowing that it would be destroyed if it did. Therefore, Kang Gyala continues to exist, with little resistance to destroy it from within and practically no opposition from the greater galaxy.